A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, smart speakers, or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are 'mobile', the operating systems used on them are generally not considered mobile ones, as they were originally designed for desktop computers that historically did not have or need specific mobile features. This distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses.
Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use, and usually including a wireless inbuilt modem and SIM tray for telephony and data connection. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 86.2 percent running Android and 12.9 percent running iOS.Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Microsoft Windows, and in general smartphone use (even without tablets) outnumbers desktop use.
Mobile devices, with mobile communications abilities (e.g., smartphones), contain two mobile operating systems – the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.
Mobile operating systems have majority use since 2017 (measured by web use); with even only the smartphones running them (excluding tablets) having majority use, more used than any other kind of device. Thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority-used kind of OS; see usage share of operating systems. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority also applies on some days in countries such as United States and United Kingdom.
These operating systems often run atop baseband or other real time operating systems that handle hardware aspects of the phone.
Android (based on the modified Linux kernel) is a mobile operating system developed by Google. The base system is open-source (and only the kernel copyleft), but the apps and drivers which provide functionality are increasingly becoming closed-source. Besides having the largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, it is also the most popular operating system for general purpose computers[further explanation needed] (a category that includes desktop computers and mobile devices), even though Android is not a popular operating system for regular (desktop) personal computers (PCs). Although the Android operating system is free and open-source software, in devices sold, much of the software bundled with it (including Google apps and vendor-installed software) is proprietary software and closed source.
Android's releases before 2.0 (1.0, 1.5, 1.6) were used exclusively on mobile phones. Android 2.x releases were mostly used for mobile phones but also some tablets, Android 3.0 was a tablet-oriented release and does not officially run on mobile phones, while both phone and tablet compatibility was merged with Android 4.0. The current Android version is Android 11, released on September 8, 2020.
Android One is a software experience that runs on the unmodified Android operating system, which closely resembles those running on Pixel devices or previously, the Google Nexus program. Unlike most of the "stock" Androids running on the market, Android One UI closely resembles the Pixel UI, due to Android One being a software experience developed by Google and distributed to partners who signup for the program, such as Nokia Mobile(HMD) and Xiaomi. Thus, the overall UI is intended to be as clean as possible. OEM partners may tweak or add additional apps such as cameras to the firmware, otherwise most of the apps will be handled by Google proprietary apps. The update was handled by Google and will be internally tested by OEM before being distributed via OTA update to the end users.
Designed by Alibaba, based on Android.
BlackBerry Secure is an operating system developed by BlackBerry, based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). Officially announced the name for their Android based front-end touch interface in August 2017, before the announcement, BlackBerry Secure was running on BlackBerry brand devices such as BlackBerry Priv, DTEK 50/60 and BlackBerry KeyOne. Currently, BlackBerry plan to license out the BlackBerry Secure to other OEM's.
ColorOS is a custom front-end touch interface, based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and is developed by OPPO Electronics Corp. As of 2016[update], OPPO officially releases ColorOS with every OPPO and Realme devices(Future Realme devices will be having their own custom version of ColorOS), and released an official ROM for the OnePlus One.
CopperheadOS, a security hardened version of Android
Huawei EMUI is a front-end touch interface developed by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and its sub-brand Honor which is based on Google's Android Open Source Project (AOSP). EMUI is preinstalled on most Huawei and Honor devices. While it was based on open source Android operating system, it consists of closed source and proprietary software.
Amazon Fire OS is an Android-based mobile operating system produced by Amazon for its Fire range of tablets, Echo and Echo Dot, and other content delivery devices like Fire TV (Previously for their Fire Phone). It is forked from Android. Fire OS primarily centers on content consumption, with a customized user interface and heavy ties to content available from Amazon's own storefronts and services.
Flyme OS is an operating system developed by Meizu Technology Co., Ltd., an open source OS based on Google Android Open Source Project (AOSP). Flyme OS is mainly installed on Meizu Smartphones such as the MX's series; however, it also has official ROM support for a few Android devices.
GrapheneOS, formerly named Android Hardening, is a variant of Android that runs on Pixel 2 or Pixel 3 hardware, is mainly developed by Daniel Micay as of 2019[update], and aims to focus on security and privacy.
HTC Sense is a software suite developed by HTC, used primarily on the company's Android-based devices. Serving as a successor to HTC's TouchFLO 3D software for Windows Mobile, Sense modifies many aspects of the Android user experience, incorporating added features (such as an altered home screen and keyboard), widgets, HTC-developed applications, and redesigned applications. The first device with Sense, the HTC Hero, was released in 2009.
iQOO UI is a customer user interface that is based on Vivo Funtouch OS, which itself is based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). The overall UI mostly resemble it predecessor, however with their own customized UI on top of the Funtouch OS.
Indus OS is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). It is developed by the Indus OS team based in India. No longer valid as of 2018Indus OS is available on Micromax, Intex, Karbonn, and other Indian smartphone brands.
LG UX (formerly named Optimus UI) is a front-end touch interface developed by LG Electronics with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. It is sometimes incorrectly identified as an operating system. LG UX is used internally by LG for sophisticated feature phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties.
Optimus UI 2 which based on Android 4.1.2 has been released on the Optimus K II and the Optimus Neo 3. It features a more refined user interface compared to the prior version based on Android 4.1.1, would include together which new functionality such as voice shutter and quick memo.
Lineage Android Distribution is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). It serves as the successor to the highly popular custom ROM, CyanogenMod, from which it was forked in December 2016 when Cyanogen Inc. announced it was discontinuing development and shut down the infrastructure behind the project. Since Cyanogen Inc. retained the rights to the Cyanogen name, the project rebranded its fork as LineageOS.
Similar to CyanogenMod, it does not include any proprietary apps unless the user installs them. It allows Android users who can no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official release from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization.
MiFavor, was the custom Android UI that was developed by ZTE for their smartphone that is running Android platform. Similar to most of the other Android UI, MiFavor replace most of the stock apps with ZTE owns apps, however the all UX still closely similar to the stock Android.
Mi User Interface (MIUI), developed by the Chinese electronic company Xiaomi Inc., is a mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). MIUI is mostly found in Xiaomi smartphones such as the Mi and Redmi Series; however, it also has official ROM support for few Android devices. Although MIUI is based on AOSP, which is open source, it consists of closed source and proprietary software of its own.
One UI (formerly called TouchWiz and Samsung Experience) is a front-end touch interface developed by Samsung Electronics In 2008 with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. It is sometimes incorrectly identified as an independent operating system. Samsung Experience is used internally by Samsung for smartphones, feature phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties as it is closed source and proprietary. The Android version of Samsung Experience also comes with Samsung-made apps preloaded (except starting with the Galaxy S6 which have removed all Samsung pre-loaded apps installed, leaving one with Samsung Galaxy Store (formerly Galaxy Apps), to save storage space and initially due to the removal of MicroSD). With the release of Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+, Samsung Experience 8.1 was preinstall on it with introducing new function known as Samsung DeX. Similar to the concept of Microsoft Continuum, Samsung DeX allowed high end Galaxy devices such as S8/S8+ or Note 8 to connect into a docking station, which extends the functionality to allow desktop-like functionality by connecting a keyboard, mouse, and monitor. Samsung also announced "Linux on Galaxy", which allows to use the standard Linux distribution on the DeX platform.
OxygenOS is based on the open source Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and is developed by OnePlus to replace Cyanogen OS on OnePlus devices such as the OnePlus One, and it is preinstalled on the OnePlus 2, OnePlus X, OnePlus 3, OnePlus 3T, OnePlus 5, OnePlus 5T and OnePlus 6. As stated by Oneplus, OxygenOS is focused on stabilizing and maintaining of stock like those found on Nexus devices. It consists of mainly Google apps and minor UI customization to maintain the sleekness of pure Android.
Google Pixel UI or Pixel Launcher is developed by Google that is based on open source Android. Unlike the Nexus phones, where Google shipped with the "stock" Android, the UI that came with the first generation Pixel phones were slightly modified as compared to the "stock" Android. As part of the Google Pixel software, the Pixel UI and its home launcher are closed source and proprietary, thus it is only available on the Pixel family devices. (However, third party mods allow non Pixel smartphones to install Pixel Launcher with Google Now feed integration).
realme UI is a mobile operating system developed by Realme which is based on OPPO ColorOS, which itself is based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). The overall UI mostly resemble it predecessor, however with their own customized UI and element on top of the ColorOS to match their target audience.
Replicant is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android with all proprietary drivers and bloat closed source software removed.
TCL UI is a custom user interface that is developed by TCL Technology for their in house smartphone series, the OS is based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP).
Sony Xperia UI (formerly known as Sony Ericsson Timescape UI) was the front-end UI that developed by Sony Mobile (formerly Sony Ericsson) In 2010 for their Sony Xperia series that is running Android platform. Sony Xperia UI mostly consists of Sony own's application such as Sony Music (formerly known as Walkman Music player), Albums and Video Player. During its time as Timescape UI, the UI was different than the standard Android UI, instead of traditional apps dock on the bottom part, it was located at the four corner of the home screen, while the middle of the screen consist of the widget. However the recent development of UI are closely resemble to those of Stock Android.
ZenUI is a front-end touch interface developed by ASUS with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. ZenUI is used by Asus for its Android phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties. ZenUI also comes preloaded with Asus-made apps like ZenLink (PC Link, Share Link, Party Link & Remote Link).
ZUI is a custom operating that is original develop by Lenovo subsidiary ZUK Mobile for their smartphones, however after the shutting down of ZUK Mobile, Lenovo had taken over as the main developer to continue developing the ZUI. The operating system is based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP).
Chrome OS is an operating system designed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface. As a result, Chrome OS primarily supports web applications. Google announced the project in July 2009, conceiving it as an operating system in which both applications and user data reside in the cloud: hence Chrome OS primarily runs web applications.
Due to increase of popularity with 2-in-1 PCs, most recent Chromebooks are introduced with touch screen capability, with Android applications starting to become available for the operating system in 2014. And in 2016, access to Android apps in the entire Google Play Store was introduced on supported Chrome OS devices. With the support of Android applications, there are Chromebook devices that are positioned as tablet based instead of notebooks.
Chrome OS is only available pre-installed on hardware from Google manufacturing partners. An open source equivalent, Chromium OS, can be compiled from downloaded source code. Early on, Google provided design goals for Chrome OS, but has not otherwise released a technical description.
This article or section may need to be formatted. (March 2020)
Sailfish OS is from Jolla. It is open source with GNU General Public License (GPL) for middleware stack core which comes from MER. Sailfish due to Jolla's business model and due to alliances with various partners and due to intentional design of OS internals, is capable to adopt in several layers third party software including Jolla software e.g. Jolla's UI is proprietary software (closed source), so such components can be proprietary with many different kinds of licences. However, user can replace them with open source components like e.g. NEMO UI instead Jolla's UI.
After Nokia abandoned in 2011 the MeeGo project, most of the MeeGo team left Nokia, and established Jolla as a company to use MeeGo and Mer business opportunities. The MER standard allows it to be launched on any hardware with kernel compatible with MER. In 2012, Linux Sailfish OS based on MeeGo and using middleware of MER core stack distribution was launched for public use. The first device, the Jolla smartphone, was unveiled on May 20, 2013. In 2015, Jolla Tablet was launched and the BRICS countries declared it an officially supported OS there. Jolla started licensing Sailfish OS 2.0 for third parties. Some devices sold are updateable to Sailfish 2.0 with no limits.
Each Sailfish OS version release is named after a Finnish lake:
|220.127.116.11||17||Eineheminlampi||Pretransition to version 2.0; major UI revamp.|
|18.104.22.168||18||Saimaa||Full transition to version 2.0; minor UI and function improvements.|
|22.214.171.124||27||4 October 2017||Kymijoki||Cbeta release. Xperia X only.|
|126.96.36.199||6 October 2017||Cbeta release. Xperia X only.|
|188.8.131.52||11 October 2017||Public release of Sailfish X. Xperia X only.|
|184.108.40.206||31 October 2017||Early access release.|
|220.127.116.11||13 November 2017||Public release.|
|18.104.22.168||28||20 February 2018||Lapuanjoki||Early access release.|
|22.214.171.124||28 February 2018||Early access release.|
|126.96.36.199||6 March 2018||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||29||31 March 2018||Mouhijoki||Early access release.|
|184.108.40.206||7 June 2018||Public release.|
|220.127.116.11||30||4 September 2018||Nurmonjoki||Early access release.|
|18.104.22.168||12 September 2018||Public release.|
|22.214.171.124||31||31 October 2018||Lemmenjoki||Early access release. Introduction of the Sailfish OS 3.0 GUI. Includes changes from planned 2.2.2 release.|
|126.96.36.199||11 November 2018||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||32||7 January 2019||Sipoonkorpi||Early access release.|
|184.108.40.206||16 January 2019||Public release.|
|220.127.116.11||31 January 2019||Beta release. Xperia XA2 (Ultra/Plus) only.|
|18.104.22.168||33||18 March 2019||Oulanka||Early access release.|
|22.214.171.124||25 March 2019||Public release.|
|126.96.36.199||34||24 April 2019||Hossa||Early access release.|
|188.8.131.52||7 May 2019||Public release.|
|184.108.40.206||29 May 2019||Public release.|
|220.127.116.11||35||18 July 2019||Seitseminen||Early access release.|
Tizen (based on the Linux kernel) is a mobile operating system hosted by Linux Foundation, together with support from the Tizen Association, guided by a Technical Steering Group composed of Intel and Samsung.
Tizen is an operating system for devices including smartphones, tablets, In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) devices, however currently it mainly focus on wearable and smart TVs. It is an open source system (however the SDK was closed source and proprietary) that aims to offer a consistent user experience across devices. Tizen's main components are the Linux kernel and the WebKit runtime. According to Intel, Tizen "combines the best of LiMo and MeeGo." HTML5 apps are emphasized, with MeeGo encouraging its members to transition to Tizen, stating that the "future belongs to HTML5-based applications, outside of a relatively small percentage of apps, and we are firmly convinced that our investment needs to shift toward HTML5." Tizen will be targeted at a variety of platforms such as handsets, touch pc, smart TVs and in-vehicle entertainment. On May 17, 2013, Tizen released version 2.1, code-named Nectarine.
While Tizen itself was open source, most of the UX and UI layer that developed by Samsung was mainly closed source and proprietary, such as the TouchWiz UI on the Samsung Z's series smartphone and One UI for their Galaxy Watch wearable lines.
KaiOS is from Kai. It is based on Firefox OS/Boot to Gecko. Unlike most mobile operating systems which focus on smartphones, KaiOS was developed mainly for feature phones, giving these access to more advanced technologies usually found on smartphones, such as app stores and Wi-Fi/4G capabilities.
It is a mix of closed-source and open-source components. FirefoxOS/B2G was released under the permissive MPL 2.0. It does not redistribute itself under the same license, so KaiOS is now presumably proprietary (but still mostly open-source, publishing its source code). KaiOS is not entirely proprietary, as it uses the copyleft GPL Linux kernel also used in Android.
Fuchsia is a capability-based, real-time operating system (RTOS) currently being developed by Google. It was first discovered as a mysterious code post on GitHub in August 2016, without any official announcement. In contrast to prior Google-developed operating systems such as Chrome OS and Android, which are based on Linux kernels, Fuchsia is based on a new microkernel called "Zircon", derived from "Little Kernel", a small operating system intended for embedded systems. This allows it to remove Linux and the copyleft GPL underwhich the Linux kernel is licensed; Fuchsia is licensed under the permissive BSD 3-clause, Apache 2.0, and MIT licenses. Upon inspection, media outlets noted that the code post on GitHub suggested Fuchsia's capability to run on universal devices, from embedded systems to smartphones, tablets and personal computers. In May 2017, Fuchsia was updated with a user interface, along with a developer writing that the project was not a for experimental, prompting media speculation about Google's intentions with the operating system, including the possibility of it replacing Android.
LiteOS is a lightweight open source real-time operating system which is part of Huawei's "1+2+1" Internet of Things solution, which is similar to Google Android Things and Samsung Tizen. It is released under the permissive BSD 3-clause license. Huawei LiteOS features lightweight, low-power, fast-response, multi-sensor collaboration, multi-protocol interconnect connectivity, enabling IoT terminals to quickly access the network. Huawei LiteOS will make intelligent hardware development easier. Thereby accelerating the realization of the interconnection of all things.[peacock term] Currently LiteOS are introduce to the consumer market with the Huawei Watch GT series and their sub-brand Honor Magic Watch series.
PureOS is a Debian GNU/Linux derivative using only free software meeting the Debian Free Software Guidelines, mainly the copyleft GPL. PureOS is endorsed by Free Software Foundation as one of the freedom-respecting operating systems. It is developed by Purism, and was already in use on Purism's laptops before it was used on the Librem 5 smartphone. Purism, in partnership with GNOME and KDE, aims to separate the CPU from the baseband processor and include hardware kill switches for the phone's Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, camera, microphone and baseband processor, and provide both GNOME and KDE Plasma Mobile as options for the desktop environment.
Ubuntu Touch is from Canonical Ltd. It is open source and uses the GPL license. Ubuntu Touch as an OS is built using the Android Linux kernel, using Android drivers and services via an LXC container, but does not use any of the Java-like code of Android. As of August 2018[update], the desktop environment of Ubuntu Touch is planned to be available as one of the default desktop options on the Librem 5 running PureOS as the operating system.
Though Canonical formally announced it was discontinuing the Ubuntu mobile OS with its integral component Unity8, the independent German non-profit UBPorts Community/("Foundation" paperwork pending in the local Berlin-government) decided to take over the project. Canonical started Ubuntu Touch based on Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet) and UBPorts upgraded the base to the nearest, current long-term support version Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus).
Original Canonical Ubuntu Touch version list:
UBPorts Ubuntu Touch version list:
Plasma Mobile is a Plasma variant for smartphones. Plasma Mobile runs on Wayland and it is compatible with Ubuntu Touch applications,PureOS applications, and eventually Android applications via KDE's Shashlik project – also sponsored by Blue Systems, or Anbox. It is under the copyleft GPLv2 license.
The Necuno phone uses Plasma Mobile. It is which is entirely open-source and thus does not have a cellular modem, so it must make calls by VOIP, like a pocket computer.
PostmarketOS is based on the Alpine Linux Linux distribution. It is intended to run on older phone hardware. As of 2019[update] it is in alpha.
LuneOS is a modern reimplementation of the Palm/HP webOS interface.
iOS (formerly named iPhone OS) was created by Apple Inc. It has the second largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, but the largest profits, due to aggressive price competition between Android-based manufacturers. It is closed source and proprietary, and is built on the open source Darwin operating system. The iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad and second or third-generation Apple TV all use iOS, which is derived from macOS.
Native third party applications were not officially supported until the release of iPhone OS 2.0 on July 11, 2008. Before this, "jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be installed. In recent years, the jailbreaking scene has changed drastically due to Apple's continued efforts to secure their operating system and prevent unauthorized modifications. Currently, jailbreaks of recent iterations of iOS are only semi-untethered, which requires a device to be re-jailbroken at every boot, and exploits for jailbreaks are becoming increasingly hard to find and use.
Currently all iOS devices are developed by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners.
iPadOS is a tablet operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. specifically for their iPad line of tablet computers. It was announced at the company's 2019 Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC), as a derivation from iOS but with a greater emphasis put on multitasking. It was released on September 24, 2019.
watchOS is the operating system of the Apple Watch, developed by Apple Inc. It is based on the iOS operating system and has many similar features. It was released on April 24, 2015, along with the Apple Watch, the only device that runs watchOS. It is currently the most widely used wearable operating system. Its features focus on convenience, such as being able to place phone calls and send texts, and health, such as fitness and heart rate tracking.
The most current version of the watchOS operating system is watchOS 7.
Kindle firmware is mobile operating system specifically design for Amazon Amazon Kindle e-readers, it is based on custom Linux kernel however it is entirely closed source and proprietary, and only runs on Amazon Kindle line up manufactured under Amazon brand.
Windows 10 (not to be confused with Windows 10 Mobile—see below) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released on July 29, 2015 and many editions and versions have been released since then. Just like its predecessors, it was designed to run across multiple Microsoft product such as PCs and Tablets. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices—particularly on 2-in-1 PCs.
Windows 10 also introduces the universal apps, expanding on Metro-style apps, these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code—including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, Xbox One, Surface Hub and Mixed Reality.
Other than the major mobile operating system from the major tech company, some company such as Huami(Amazfit), Huawei, realme, TCL and Xiaomi has their own proprietary RTOS that develop specifically for their own smartband and smartwatch that is design to be power efficient and low battery consumption that is neither based on Android nor Linux Kernel.
Operating System that is primarily design for their Bip series, however Huami is currently developing the operating system to run on other company smartwatch as well. (Not to be confused with the Android-based Amazfit OS as both of them sharing the name yet both are based on different operating system, for their Android based Amazfit OS, kindly refer to the Android section)
Huawei Band Operating system is a operating system specifically design and develop by Huawei for their fitness tracker, including smartband series from Honor. (Not to be confused with another RTOS (LiteOS) which was also developed by Huawei.)
Proprietary OS develop by Lenovo for their fitness tracker and smartwatch.
A proprietary operating system design to run on realme smartband and smartwatch.
A proprietary RTOS powering TCL and Alcatel brand smartband and smartwatch.
Proprietary RTOS that is develop by Huami for Xiaomi Mi Band series. (Not to be confused with Xiaomi MIUI for smartwatch which is based on Wear OS)
BlackBerry 10 (based on the QNX OS) is from BlackBerry. As a smartphone OS, it is closed source and proprietary, and only runs on phones and tablets manufactured by BlackBerry.
One of the dominant platforms in the world in late 2000s, its global market share was reduced significantly by mid-2010s. In late 2016, BlackBerry announced that it will continue to support the OS, with a promise to release 10.3.3. Therefore, BlackBerry 10 would not receive any major updates as BlackBerry and its partners would focus more on their Android base development.
CyanogenMod was a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). It was a custom ROM that was co-developed by the CyanogenMod community. The OS did not include any proprietary apps unless the user installed them. Due to its open source nature, CyanogenMod allowed Android users who could no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official releases from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization. The last version of the OS was CyanogenMod 13 which was based on Android Asus
On December 24, 2016, CyanogenMod announced on their blog that they would no longer be releasing any CyanogenMod updates. All development moved to LineageOS.
Cyanogen OS was based on CyanogenMod and maintained by Cyanogen Inc; however, it included proprietary apps and it was only available for commercial uses.
Firefox OS (formerly known as "Boot to Gecko" and shortly "B2G") is from Mozilla. It was an open source mobile operating system released under the Mozilla Public License built on the Android Linux kernel and used Android drivers, but did not use any Java-like code of Android.
According to Ars Technica, "Mozilla says that B2G is motivated by a desire to demonstrate that the standards-based open Web has the potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing single-vendor application development stacks offered by the dominant mobile operating systems." In September 2016, Mozilla announced that work on Firefox OS has ceased, and all B2G-related code would be removed from mozilla-central.
MeeGo was from non-profit organization The Linux Foundation. It is open source and GPL. At the 2010 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Nokia and Intel both unveiled MeeGo, a mobile operating system that combined Moblin and Maemo to create an open-sourced experience for users across all devices. In 2011 Nokia announced that it would no longer pursue MeeGo in favor of Windows Phone. Nokia announced the Nokia N9 on June 21, 2011 at the Nokia Connection event in Singapore. LG announced its support for the platform.Maemo was a platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet tablets. It is open source and GPL, based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of its graphical user interface (GUI), frameworks, and libraries from the GNOME project. It uses the Matchbox window manager and the GTK-based Hildon as its GUI and application framework.
webOS was developed by Palm. webOS is an open source mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which launched with the Palm Pre. After being acquired by HP, two phones (the Veer and the Pre 3) and a tablet (the TouchPad) running webOS were introduced in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that webOS hardware would be discontinued, but would continue to support and update webOS software and develop the webOS ecosystem. HP released webOS as open source under the name Open webOS, and plans to update it with additional features. On February 25, 2013 HP announced the sale of webOS to LG Electronics, who used the operating system for its "smart" or Internet-connected TVs. However, HP retained patents underlying WebOS and cloud-based services such as the App Catalog.
In 1999, Research In Motion released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. In September 2012, RIM announced that the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped. As of September 2014, there were around 46 million active BlackBerry service subscribers. In early 2010s, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its company name to BlackBerry Limited and making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10".
Symbian platform was developed by Nokia for some models of smartphones. It is proprietary software, it was however used by Ericsson (SonyEricsson), Sending and Benq. The operating system was discontinued in 2012, although a slimmed-down version for basic phones was still developed until July 2014. Microsoft officially shelved the platform in favor of Windows Phone after its acquisition of Nokia.
Bada platform (stylized as bada; Korean: 바다) was an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It was developed by Samsung Electronics. Its name is derived from "바다 (bada)", meaning "ocean" or "sea" in Korean. It ranges from mid- to high-end smartphones. To foster adoption of Bada OS, since 2011 Samsung reportedly has considered releasing the source code under an open-source license, and expanding device support to include Smart TVs. Samsung announced in June 2012 intentions to merge Bada into the Tizen project, but would meanwhile use its own Bada operating system, in parallel with Google Android OS and Microsoft Windows Phone, for its smartphones. All Bada-powered devices are branded under the Wave name, but not all of Samsung's Android-powered devices are branded under the name Galaxy. On February 25, 2013, Samsung announced that it will stop developing Bada, moving development to Tizen instead. Bug reporting was finally terminated in April 2014.
Palm OS/Garnet OS was from Access Co. It is closed source and proprietary. webOS was introduced by Palm in January 2009, as the successor to Palm OS with Web 2.0 technologies, open architecture and multitasking abilities.
Windows Mobile is a family of proprietary operating systems from Microsoft aimed at business and enterprise users, based on Windows CE and originally developed for Pocket PC (PDA) devices. In 2010 it was replaced with the consumer-focused Windows Phone.
Versions of Windows Mobile came in multiple editions, like "Pocket PC Premium," "Pocket PC Professional," "Pocket PC Phone," and "Smartphone" (Windows Mobile 2003) or "Professional," "Standard," and "Classic" (Windows Mobile 6.0). Some editions were touchscreen-only and some were keyboard-only, although there were cases where device vendors managed to graft support for one onto an edition targeted at the other. Cellular phone features were also only supported by some editions. Microsoft started work on a version of Windows Mobile that would combine all features together, but it was aborted, and instead they focused on developing the non-backwards-compatible, touchscreen-only Windows Phone 7.
Windows Phone is a proprietary mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune. Windows Phone features a new touchscreen-oriented user interface derived from Metro design language. Windows Phone was replaced by Windows 10 Mobile in 2015.
Unveiled on February 15, 2010, Windows Phone includes a user interface inspired by Microsoft's Metro Design Language. It is integrated with Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices were made primarily by Microsoft Mobile/Nokia, and also by HTC and Samsung.
On January 21, 2015, Microsoft announced that the Windows Phone brand will be phased out and replaced with Windows 10 Mobile, bringing tighter integration and unification with its PC counterpart Windows 10, and provide a platform for smartphones and tablets with screen sizes under 8 inches.
On October 8, 2017, Microsoft officially announced that they would no longer push any major updates to Windows 10 Mobile, instead it would put it in maintenance mode, where Microsoft would push bug fixes and general improvements only, therefore Windows 10 Mobile would not receive any new feature updates.
On January 18, 2019, Microsoft announced that support for Windows 10 Mobile would end on December 10, 2019, with no further security updates released after then, and that Windows 10 Mobile users should migrate to iOS or Android phones.
Current Windows 10 Mobile version list:
This section needs to be updated.(August 2018)
In 2006, Android and iOS did not exist and only 64 million smartphones were sold. In 2018 Q1, 383.5 million smartphones were sold and global market share was 85.9% for Android and 14.1% for iOS. Other OS smartphones were 0,131 million, counting the 0.03% of the total.
According to StatCounter web use statistics (a proxy for all use), smartphones (alone without tablets) have majority use globally, with desktop computers used much less (and Android in particular more popular than Windows). Use varies however by continent with smartphones way more popular in the biggest continents, i.e. Asia, and the desktop still more popular in some, though not in North America.
The desktop is still popular in many countries (while overall down to 44.9% in the first quarter of 2017), smartphones are more popular even in many developed countries (or about to be in more). A few countries on any continent are desktop-minority; European countries (and some in South America, and a few, e.g. Haiti, in North America; and most in Asia and Africa) are smartphone-majority, Poland and Turkey highest with 57.68% and 62.33%, respectively. In Ireland, smartphone use at 45.55% outnumbers desktop use and mobile as a whole gains majority when including the tablet share at 9.12%. Spain is also slightly desktop-minority.
The range of measured mobile web use varies a lot by country, and a StatCounter press release recognizes "India amongst world leaders in use of mobile to surf the internet" (of the big countries) where the share is around (or over) 80% and desktop is at 19.56%, with Russia trailing with 17.8% mobile use (and desktop the rest).
Smartphones (alone, without tablets), first gained majority in December 2016 (desktop-majority was lost the month before), and it wasn't a Christmas-time fluke, as while close to majority after smartphone majority happened again in March 2017.
In the week from November 7–13, 2016, smartphones alone (without tablets) overtook desktop, for the first time (for a short period; non-full-month). Mobile-majority applies to countries such as Paraguay in South America, Poland in Europe and Turkey; and most of Asia and Africa. Some of the world is still desktop-majority, with e.g. in the United States at 54.89% (but no not on all days). However, in some territories of the United States, such as Puerto Rico, desktop is way under majority, with Windows under 30% overtaken by Android.
On October 22, 2016 (and subsequent weekends), mobile showed majority. Since October 27, the desktop hasn't shown majority, not even on weekdays. And smartphones alone have showed majority since December 23 to the end of the year, with the share topping at 58.22% on Christmas Day. To the "mobile"-majority share then of smartphones, tablets could be added giving a 63.22% majority. While an unusually high top, a similarly high also happened on Monday April 17, 2017, with then only smartphones share slightly lower and tablet share slightly higher, with them combined at 62.88%.
According to a StatCounter November 1, 2016 press release[update], the world has turned desktop-minority; at about 49% desktop use for the previous month, but mobile wasn't ranked higher, tablet share had to be added to it to exceed desktop share. By now, mobile (smartphones) have full majority, outnumbering desktop/laptop computers by a safe margin (and no longer counting tablets with desktops makes them most popular).
This section needs to be updated.(August 2018)
|Quarter||Android||iOS||KaiOS||Windows||BlackBerry||Symbian||Other||Total smartphones||Total phones|
This section needs to be updated.(August 2018)
Developed in 1999, as a platform for wireless applications on CDMA-based mobile phones, it debuted in September 2001 ... Originally made for the Kyocera QCP-3035 (which was the very first Brew-enabled phone)
The P800 resembles its Symbian predecessor, the R380
Thing is, Nokia's been absolutely emphatic with us -- Maemo's intended for handheld computers (read: MIDs) with voice capability, while S60 continues to be the choice for purebred smartphones
Edited: 2021-06-18 18:36:19