List of document markup languages

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The following is a list of document markup languages. You may also find the List of markup languages of interest.

Well-known document markup languages

  • HyperText Markup Language (HTML) – the original markup language that was defined as a part of implementing World Wide Web, an ad hoc defined language inspired by the meta format SGML and which inspired many other markup languages.
  • Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ)[1] - the XML-based markup language used for exchanging geographic information for use with Google Earth.
  • Markdown - simple plaintext markup popular as language of blog/cms posts and comments, multiple implementations.[2]
  • Mathematical Markup Language (MathML)
  • Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
  • TeX, LaTeX – a format for describing complex type and page layout often used for mathematics, technical, and academic publications.
  • Wiki markup – used in Wikipedia, MediaWiki and other Wiki installations.
  • Extensible 3D (X3D)
  • Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML): HTML reformulated in XML syntax.
    • XHTML Basic – a subset of XHTML for simple (typically mobile, handheld) devices. It is meant to replace WML, and C-HTML.
    • XHTML Mobile Profile (XHTML MP) – a standard designed for mobile phones and other resource-constrained devices.


Lesser-known document markup languages

(including some lightweight markup languages)

  • ABC notation - markup language for music scores in pure text.[3]
  • Amigaguide – The Amiga hypertext documentation format, including multimedia support.
  • AsciiDoc - plaintext markup language similar to Markdown
  • AsciiDoctor - plaintext markup language (extending AsciiDoc) AsciiDoctor
  • Chemical Markup Language (CML)
  • Compact HyperText Markup Language (C-HTML) – used for some mobile phones.
  • Computable Document Format - used for interactive technical documents.
  • ConTeXt – a modular, structured formatting language based on TeX.
  • Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) - modular open free format for technical and specialized documents.
  • DocBook – format for technical (but not only) manuals and documentation.
  • eLML – eLesson Markup Language: create eLearning content
  • Encoded Archival Description (EAD)
  • Enriched text – for formatting e-mail text.
  • GML
    • Generalized Markup Language (GML)
    • Geography Markup Language[4][5] (GML)
    • Gesture Markup Language[6] (GML)
    • Graffiti Markup Language[7] (GML)
  • GNU TeXmacs format[8] – used by the GNU TeXmacs document preparation system
  • Guide Markup Language (GuideML) – used by the Hitchhiker's Guide site.[9]
  • Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) – designed for smartphones and handheld computers.
  • Help Markup Language (HelpML)
  • Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language (HyTime)
  • HyperTeX – for including hyperlinks in TeX (and LaTeX) documents.
  • Information Presentation Facility (IPF) – is a system for presenting online help and hypertext on IBM OS/2 systems. It is also the default help file format used by the cross-platform fpGUI Toolkit project.
  • JATS (Journal Article Tag Suite) – a NISO standard of XML used to describe and publish STEM (scientific/technical/engineering/medical) scholarly journal articles
  • LilyPond – a system for music notation.
  • LinuxDoc – used by the Linux Documentation Project.
  • Lout – a document formatting functional programming language, similar in style to LaTeX.
  • Maker Interchange Format (MIF)
  • Microsoft Assistance Markup Language (MAML)
  • Music Encoding Initiative (MEI)
  • Music Extensible Markup Language (MusicXML)
  • Open Mathematical Documents (OMDoc)
  • OpenMath – a markup language for mathematical formulae which can complement MathML.
  • Parameter Value Language, stores mission data in NASA's Planetary Database System
  • Plain Old Documentation (POD) – a simple, platform-independent documentation tool for Perl.[10]
  • Pillar - a markup syntax and associated tools to write and generate documentation written in Pharo
  • PUB (markup language), an early scriptable markup language[11]
  • Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML)
  • reStructuredText (reSt) - plaintext platform-independent markup used as Python libraries documentation tool, multiple output formats (HTML, LaTeX, ODT, EPUB, ...)[12]
  • Retail Template Markup Language (RTML) – e-commerce language which is based on Lisp.
  • Revisable-Form Text (RFT) – part of IBM's Document Content Architecture to allow transfer of formatted documents to other systems.
  • S1000D – international specification for technical documentation related to commercial or military; aerospace, sea or land; vehicles or equipment.
  • Scribe – Brian Reid's seminal markup language
  • Script – Early IBM markup language on which GML is built.
  • SiSU Structured Information, Serialized Units – generalized Markup language with several output formats
  • SKiCal – a machine-readable format for the interchange of enhanced yellow-page directory listings.
  • Skriv – lightweight markup language.
  • Texinfo – GNU documentation format.
  • Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) – Guidelines for text encoding in the humanities, social sciences and linguistics.
  • Textile (markup language) – Plaintext XHTML web text.
  • Time Management Markup Language [13](TMML) – For Time Management and rarely used for mobile alarm in 2008
  • troff (typesetter runoff), groff (GNU runoff)
  • UDO (markup language), a lightweight markup language
  • Wireless Markup Language (WML), Wireless TV Markup Language (WTVML)
  • Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML) XML based user interface markup language
  • Xupl – a C-style equivalent to XML.

Office document markup languages

  • Compound Document Format
  • Office Open XML (OOXML) – open standard format for office documents:
    • SpreadsheetML – spreadsheet language, part of Office Open XML
    • PresentationML – presentations language, part of Office Open XML
    • WordprocessingML – wordprocessing language, part of Office Open XML
    • Microsoft Office 2003 XML formats – predecessor of Office Open XML
  • OpenDocument (ODF) – open standard format for office documents
    • XML – predecessor of OpenDocument
  • ReportML – Report format language originating from Microsoft Access. (not a part of Office Open XML (yet))
  • Rich Text Format (RTF) – Microsoft format for exchanging documents with other vendors' applications. (It is not really a markup language, as it was never meant for intuitive and easy typing.[14][15])
  • Uniform Office Format (UOF) – open format for office documents, being harmonised with OpenDocument.

See also


  1. ^ Google Developers: Keyhole Markup Language KML Reference. Accessed on 2013/03/15.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2004-04-02. Retrieved 2014-04-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^
  4. ^ Open Geospatial Consortium, "Geography Markup Language", OGC accessed on 2013/03/15.
  5. ^ Geography Markup Language is an ISO standard (ISO 19136:2007).
  6. ^ Gesture Markup Language GestureML Wiki Archived 2013-03-10 at the Wayback Machine. Extensible markup language used to define gestures that describe interactive object behavior and the relationships between objects in an application. Accessed on 2013/03/15.
  7. ^ Graffiti Markup Language Graffiti Markup Language. Designed to maximize readability and ease of implementation for even hobbyist programmers, artists and graffiti writers. Accessed on 2013/03/15.
  8. ^ "The TeXmacs format".
  9. ^ h2g2
  10. ^
  11. ^ PUB Manual
  12. ^
  13. ^ "TMML tutorial". Retrieved 2019-10-29.
  14. ^ RTF Pocket Guide by O'Reilly Media, retrieved 2010-03-13
  15. ^ Sean M. Burke (July 2003). "RTF Pocket Guide". Retrieved 2010-03-13.

Edited: 2021-06-18 19:12:28