Registered trademark symbol

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Registered trademark symbol
In UnicodeU+00AE ® REGISTERED SIGN (HTML ® · ®, ®, ®)
See alsoU+2122 TRADE MARK SIGN
Different from

The registered trademark symbol, ®, is a typographic symbol that provides notice that the preceding word or symbol is a trademark or service mark that has been registered with a national trademark office. A trademark is a symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product.[1][2] In some countries it is against the law to use the registered trademark symbol for a mark that is not officially registered in any country.[3]

Unregistered trademarks can instead be marked with the trademark symbol, , while unregistered service marks are marked with the service mark symbol, . The proper manner to display these symbols is immediately following the mark; the symbol is commonly in superscript style, but that is not legally required. In many jurisdictions, only registered trademarks confer easily defended legal rights.[4]

In the US, the registered trademark symbol was originally introduced in the Trademark Act of 1946.[5]

Because the ® symbol is not commonly available on typewriters (or ASCII), it was common to approximate it with the characters (R) (or (r)).[a][b] Example of legal equivalents are the phrase Registered, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, which may be abbreviated to Reg U.S. Pat & TM Off.[7] in the US.[2]

Computer usage

The registered trademark character was added to several extended ASCII character sets, including ISO-8859-1 from which it was inherited by Unicode as U+00AE ® REGISTERED SIGN.[8][9] This is a different character from U+24C7 CIRCLED LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R as many fonts draw the registered trademark symbol smaller and possibly superscripted.

Typing the character

  • US international keyboard and UK extended keyboard layouts: AltGr+⇧ Shift+R (subject to OS support).
  • Microsoft Windows: Alt+0174 (on numeric keypad)
  • Mac OS: ⌥ Option+R
  • Linux: ComposeOR
  • Linux and Chrome OS: Ctrl+⇧ Shift+U then AEspace
  • HTML: ® or ®
  • Emacs: C-x8R
  • LaTeX: \textregistered in text mode. \circledR in text or math mode (requires amsfonts package)

Related and similar symbols

  • The trademark symbol, ™, used for unregistered trademarks
  • The service mark symbol, ℠, used for unregistered service marks
  • The copyright symbol, ©
  • The sound recording copyright symbol, ℗
  • The Orthodox Union hechsher symbol,

See also

  • World Intellectual Property Organization


  1. ^ for example the Python programming language Trademark Usage Policy advocates this usage.[6]
  2. ^ Most word processors will autocorrect these two sequences to a proper ® symbol.


  1. ^ For example, "Intellectual property office". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "15 U.S.C. 1111". Retrieved December 15, 2005.
  3. ^ "Protecting your trade mark abroad". Government of the United Kingdom. November 18, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  4. ^ for example "Unregistered trade marks". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  5. ^ The Online Etymology Dictionary
  6. ^ "PSF Trademark Usage Policy". The first or most prominent mention of a Python trademark should be immediately followed by a symbol for registered trademark: "®" or "(r)".
  7. ^ Gregory H. Guillot. A Guide to Proper Trademark Use. 1995–2007.
  8. ^
  9. ^ The Unicode Standard, Version 9.0, C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement (PDF). Mountain View, CA: Unicode Consortium. 2016. pp. 0080–00FF. ISBN 978-1-936213-13-9.

Edited: 2021-06-18 19:11:54