List of Unix commands

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This is a list of Unix commands as specified by IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, which is part of the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). These commands can be found on Unix operating systems and most Unix-like operating systems.


IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 utilities
Name Category Status (Option code) Description First appeared
admin SCCS Optional (XSI) Create and administer SCCS files PWB UNIX
alias Misc Mandatory Define or display aliases
ar Misc Mandatory Create and maintain library archives Version 1 AT&T UNIX
asa Text processing Optional (FR) Interpret carriage-control characters System V
at Process management Mandatory Execute commands at a later time Version 7 AT&T UNIX
awk Text processing Mandatory Pattern scanning and processing language Version 7 AT&T UNIX
basename Filesystem Mandatory Return non-directory portion of a pathname; see also dirname Version 7 AT&T UNIX
batch Process management Mandatory Schedule commands to be executed in a batch queue
bc Misc Mandatory Arbitrary-precision arithmetic language Version 6 AT&T UNIX
bg Process management Optional (UP) Run jobs in the background
cc/c99 C programming Optional (CD) Compile standard C programs IEEE Std 1003.1-2001
cal Misc Optional (XSI) Print a calendar Version 5 AT&T UNIX
cat Filesystem Mandatory Concatenate and print files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
cd Filesystem Mandatory Change the working directory Version 6 AT&T UNIX
cflow C programming Optional (XSI) Generate a C-language call graph System V
chgrp Filesystem Mandatory Change the file group ownership PWB UNIX
chmod Filesystem Mandatory Change the file modes/attributes/permissions Version 1 AT&T UNIX
chown Filesystem Mandatory Change the file ownership Version 1 AT&T UNIX
cksum Filesystem Mandatory Write file checksums and sizes 4.4BSD
cmp Filesystem Mandatory Compare two files; see also diff Version 1 AT&T UNIX
comm Text processing Mandatory Select or reject lines common to two files Version 4 AT&T UNIX
command Shell programming Mandatory Execute a simple command
compress Filesystem Optional (XSI) Compress data 4.3BSD
cp Filesystem Mandatory Copy files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
crontab Misc Mandatory Schedule periodic background work System V
csplit Text processing Mandatory Split files based on context PWB UNIX
ctags C programming Optional (SD) Create a tags file 3BSD
cut Text processing Mandatory Cut out selected fields of each line of a file System III
cxref C programming Optional (XSI) Generate a C-language program cross-reference table System V
date Misc Mandatory Display the date and time Version 1 AT&T UNIX
dd Filesystem Mandatory Convert and copy a file Version 5 AT&T UNIX
delta SCCS Optional (XSI) Make a delta (change) to an SCCS file PWB UNIX
df Filesystem Mandatory Report free disk space Version 1 AT&T UNIX
diff Text processing Mandatory Compare two files; see also cmp Version 5 AT&T UNIX
dirname Filesystem Mandatory Return the directory portion of a pathname; see also basename System III
du Filesystem Mandatory Estimate file space usage Version 1 AT&T UNIX
echo Shell programming Mandatory Write arguments to standard output Version 2 AT&T UNIX
ed Text processing Mandatory The standard text editor Version 1 AT&T UNIX
env Misc Mandatory Set the environment for command invocation System III
ex Text processing Optional (XSI) Text editor 1BSD
expand Text processing Mandatory Convert tabs to spaces 3BSD
expr Shell programming Mandatory Evaluate arguments as an expression Version 7 AT&T UNIX
false Shell programming Mandatory Return false value Version 7 AT&T UNIX
fc Misc Optional (UP) Process the command history list
fg Process management Optional (UP) Run jobs in the foreground
file Filesystem Mandatory Determine file type Version 4 AT&T UNIX
find Filesystem Mandatory Find files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
fold Text processing Mandatory Filter for folding lines 1BSD
fort77 FORTRAN77 programming Obsolescent (FD) FORTRAN compiler XPG4
fuser Process management Optional (XSI) List process IDs of all processes that have one or more files open System V
gencat Misc Mandatory Generate a formatted message catalog
get SCCS Optional (XSI) Get a version of an SCCS file PWB UNIX
getconf Misc Mandatory Get configuration values
getopts Shell programming Mandatory Parse utility options
grep Misc Mandatory Search text for a pattern Version 4 AT&T UNIX
hash Misc Mandatory Hash database access method
head Text processing Mandatory Copy the first part of files PWB UNIX[citation needed]
iconv Text processing Mandatory Codeset conversion HP-UX
id Misc Mandatory Return user identity System V
ipcrm Misc Optional (XSI) Remove a message queue, semaphore set, or shared memory segment identifier System V
ipcs Misc Optional (XSI) Report interprocess communication facilities status System V
jobs Process management Optional (UP) Display status of jobs in the current session
join Text processing Mandatory Merges two sorted text files based on the presence of a common field Version 7 AT&T UNIX
kill Process management Mandatory Terminate or signal processes Version 4 AT&T UNIX
lex C programming Optional (CD) Generate programs for lexical tasks Version 7 AT&T UNIX
link Filesystem Optional (XSI) Create a hard link to a file Version 1 AT&T UNIX
ln Filesystem Mandatory Link files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
locale Misc Mandatory Get locale-specific information
localedef Misc Mandatory Define locale environment
logger Shell programming Mandatory Log messages 4.3BSD
logname Misc Mandatory Return the user's login name 4.4BSD
lp Text processing Mandatory Send files to a printer System V
ls Filesystem Mandatory List directory contents Version 1 AT&T UNIX
m4 Misc Mandatory Macro processor PWB UNIX
mailx Misc Mandatory Process messages Version 1 AT&T UNIX
make Programming Optional (SD) Maintain, update, and regenerate groups of programs PWB UNIX
man Misc Mandatory Display system documentation Version 2 AT&T UNIX
mesg Misc Mandatory Permit or deny messages Version 1 AT&T UNIX
mkdir Filesystem Mandatory Make directories Version 1 AT&T UNIX
mkfifo Filesystem Mandatory Make FIFO special files 4.4BSD[dubious ]
more Text processing Optional (UP) Display files on a page-by-page basis 3BSD
mv Filesystem Mandatory Move or rename files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
newgrp Misc Mandatory Change to a new group Version 6 AT&T UNIX
nice Process management Mandatory Invoke a utility with an altered nice value Version 4 AT&T UNIX
nl Text processing Optional (XSI) Line numbering filter System III
nm C programming Optional (SD, XSI) Write the name list of an object file Version 1 AT&T UNIX
nohup Process management Mandatory Invoke a utility immune to hangups Version 4 AT&T UNIX
od Misc Mandatory Dump files in various formats Version 1 AT&T UNIX
paste Text processing Mandatory Merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files Version 32V AT&T UNIX
patch Text processing Mandatory Apply changes to files 4.3BSD
pathchk Filesystem Mandatory Check pathnames
pax Misc Mandatory Portable archive interchange 4.4BSD[citation needed]
pr Text processing Mandatory Print files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
printf Shell programming Mandatory Write formatted output 4.3BSD-Reno
prs SCCS Optional (XSI) Print an SCCS file PWB UNIX
ps Process management Mandatory Report process status Version 4 AT&T UNIX
pwd Filesystem Mandatory Print working directory Version 5 AT&T UNIX
qalter Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Alter batch job
qdel Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Delete batch jobs
qhold Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Hold batch jobs
qmove Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Move batch jobs
qmsg Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Send message to batch jobs
qrerun Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Rerun batch jobs
qrls Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Release batch jobs
qselect Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Select batch jobs
qsig Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Signal batch jobs
qstat Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Show status of batch jobs
qsub Batch utilities Obsolescent (BE) Submit a script
read Shell programming Mandatory Read a line from standard input
renice Process management Mandatory Set nice values of running processes 4BSD
rm Filesystem Mandatory Remove directory entries Version 1 AT&T UNIX
rmdel SCCS Optional (XSI) Remove a delta from an SCCS file PWB UNIX
rmdir Filesystem Mandatory Remove directories, if they are empty. Version 1 AT&T UNIX
sact SCCS Optional (XSI) Print current SCCS file-editing activity System III
sccs SCCS Optional (XSI) Front end for the SCCS subsystem 4.3BSD
sed Text processing Mandatory Stream editor Version 7 AT&T UNIX
sh Shell programming Mandatory Shell, the standard command language interpreter Version 7 AT&T UNIX (in earlier versions, sh was either the Thompson shell or the PWB shell)
sleep Shell programming Mandatory Suspend execution for an interval Version 4 AT&T UNIX
sort Text processing Mandatory Sort, merge, or sequence check text files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
split Misc Mandatory Split files into pieces Version 3 AT&T UNIX
strings C programming Mandatory Find printable strings in files 2BSD
strip C programming Optional (SD) Remove unnecessary information from executable files Version 1 AT&T UNIX
stty Misc Mandatory Set the options for a terminal Version 2 AT&T UNIX
tabs Misc Mandatory Set terminal tabs PWB UNIX
tail Text processing Mandatory Copy the last part of a file PWB UNIX[citation needed]
talk Misc Optional (UP) Talk to another user 4.2BSD
tee Shell programming Mandatory Duplicate the standard output Version 5 AT&T UNIX
test Shell programming Mandatory Evaluate expression Version 7 AT&T UNIX
time Process management Mandatory Time a simple command Version 3 AT&T UNIX
touch Filesystem Mandatory Change file access and modification times Version 7 AT&T UNIX
tput Misc Mandatory Change terminal characteristics System V
tr Text processing Mandatory Translate characters Version 4 AT&T UNIX
true Shell programming Mandatory Return true value Version 7 AT&T UNIX
tsort Text processing Mandatory Topological sort Version 7 AT&T UNIX
tty Misc Mandatory Return user's terminal name Version 1 AT&T UNIX
type Misc Optional (XSI) Displays how a name would be interpreted if used as a command
ulimit Misc Optional (XSI) Set or report file size limit
umask Misc Mandatory Get or set the file mode creation mask System III
unalias Misc Mandatory Remove alias definitions
uname Misc Mandatory Return system name PWB UNIX
uncompress Misc Optional (XSI) Expand compressed data 4.3BSD
unexpand Text processing Mandatory Convert spaces to tabs 3BSD
unget SCCS Optional (XSI) Undo a previous get of an SCCS file System III
uniq Text processing Mandatory Report or filter out repeated lines in a file Version 3 AT&T UNIX
unlink Filesystem Optional (XSI) Call the unlink function Version 1 AT&T UNIX
uucp Network Optional (UU) System-to-system copy Version 7 AT&T UNIX
uudecode Network Mandatory Decode a binary file 4BSD
uuencode Network Mandatory Encode a binary file 4BSD
uustat Network Optional (UU) uucp status inquiry and job control System III
uux Process management Optional (UU) Remote command execution Version 7 AT&T UNIX
val SCCS Optional (XSI) Validate SCCS files System III
vi Text processing Optional (UP) Screen-oriented (visual) display editor 1BSD
wait Process management Mandatory Await process completion Version 4 AT&T UNIX
wc Text processing Mandatory Line, word and byte or character count Version 1 AT&T UNIX
what SCCS Optional (XSI) Identify SCCS files PWB UNIX
who System administration Mandatory Display who is on the system Version 1 AT&T UNIX
write Misc Mandatory Write to another user's terminal Version 1 AT&T UNIX
xargs Shell programming Mandatory Construct argument lists and invoke utility PWB UNIX
yacc C programming Optional (CD) Yet another compiler compiler PWB UNIX
zcat Text processing Optional (XSI) Expand and concatenate data 4.3BSD

See also

  • List of GNU Core Utilities commands
  • List of GNOME applications
  • List of GNU packages
  • List of KDE applications
  • List of Unix daemons
  • List of web browsers for Unix and Unix-like operating systems
  • Unix philosophy
  • util-linux


External links

Edited: 2021-06-18 14:18:39