In computer science and artificial intelligence, ontology languages are formal languages used to construct ontologies. They allow the encoding of knowledge about specific domains and often include reasoning rules that support the processing of that knowledge. Ontology languages are usually declarative languages, are almost always generalizations of frame languages, and are commonly based on either first-order logic or on description logic.
Classification of ontology languages
Classification by syntax
Traditional syntax ontology languages
- Common Logic - and its dialects
- DOGMA (Developing Ontology-Grounded Methods and Applications)
- F-Logic (Frame Logic)
- KIF (Knowledge Interchange Format)
- KM programming language
- LOOM (ontology)
- OCML (Operational Conceptual Modelling Language)
- OKBC (Open Knowledge Base Connectivity)
- PLIB (Parts LIBrary)
Markup ontology languages
These languages use a markup scheme to encode knowledge, most commonly with XML.
- Ontology Inference Layer (OIL)
- Web Ontology Language (OWL)
- Resource Description Framework (RDF)
- RDF Schema (RDFS)
Controlled natural languages
- Attempto Controlled English
Open vocabulary natural languages
Classification by structure (logic type)
Three languages are completely or partially frame-based languages.
Description logic provides an extension of frame languages, without going so far as to take the leap to first-order logic and support for arbitrary predicates.
Gellish is an example of a combined ontology language and ontology that is description logic based. It distinguishes between the semantic differences among others of:
- relation types for relations between concepts (classes)
- relation types for relations between individuals
- relation types for relations between individuals and classes
It also contains constructs to express queries and communicative intent.
Several ontology languages support expressions in first-order logic and allow general predicates.
- Domain theory
- Formal concept analysis
- Galois connection
- Lattice (order)
- List of knowledge representation languages
- Modeling language
Edited: 2021-06-18 19:24:23