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The Green500 is a biannual ranking of supercomputers, from the TOP500 list of supercomputers, in terms of energy efficiency.[1][2] The list measures performance per watt using the TOP500 measure of high performance LINPACK benchmarks at double-precision floating-point format.


As of November 2012, an Appro International, Inc. Xtreme-X supercomputer (Beacon) topped the Green500 list with 2499 LINPACK MFLOPS/W.[3] Beacon is deployed by NICS of the University of Tennessee and is a GreenBlade GB824M, Xeon E5-2670 based, eight cores (8C), 2.6 GHz, Infiniband FDR, Intel Xeon Phi 5110P computer.[4]

As of June 2013, the Eurotech supercomputer Eurora at Cineca topped the Green500 list with 3208 LINPACK MFLOPS/W.[5] The Cineca Eurora supercomputer is equipped with two Intel Xeon E5-2687W CPUs and two PCI-e connected NVIDIA Tesla K20 accelerators per node. Water cooling and electronics design allows for very high densities to be reached with a peak performance of 350 TFLOPS per rack.[6]

As of November 2014, the L-CSC supercomputer of the Helmholtz Association at the GSI in Darmstadt Germany topped the Green500 list with 5271 MFLOPS/W and was the first cluster to surpass an efficiency of 5 GFLOPS/W. It runs on Intel Xeon E5-2690 Processors with the Intel Ivy Bridge Architecture and AMD FirePro S9150 GPU Accelerators. It uses in rack watercooling and Cooling Towers to reduce the energy required for cooling.[7]

As of August 2015, the Shoubu supercomputer of RIKEN outside Tokyo Japan topped the Green500 list with 7032 MFLOPS/W. The then-top three supercomputers of the list used PEZY-SC accelerators (GPU-like that use OpenCL)[8] by PEZY Computing with 1024 cores each and 6–7 GFLOPS/W efficiency.[9][10]

As of June 2019, DGX SaturnV Volta, using "NVIDIA DGX-1 Volta36, Xeon E5-2698v4 20C 2.2GHz, Infiniband EDR, NVIDIA Tesla V100", tops Green500 list with 15,113 MFLOPS/W, while ranked only 469th on Top500.[11] It's only a little bit more efficient than the much bigger Summit ranked 2nd while 1st on Top500 with 14,719 MFLOPS/W, using IBM POWER9 CPUs while also with Nvidia Tesla V100 GPUs.

As of June 2020, Japanese Preferred Networks' supercomputer, using their own chips (and Intel's), "MN-Core Server, Xeon 8260M 24C 2.4GHz, MN-Core, RoCEv2/MN-Core DirectConnect" tops the Green500 list with 21,108 MFLOPS/W, while ranked only 393rd on Top500. Of the big systems making top 10 of the Top500 list, Selene supercomputer is second on the Green500 list (7th on Top500), using Nvidia GPUs and AMD CPUs close behind in efficiency while much larger with 20,518 MFLOPS/W, and HPC5 supercomputer 6th on both lists, also using Nvidia GPUs but IBM's Power CPUs, and similarly Summit the previous top supercomputer, now in second place (8th on green500), and the current top supercomputer Fugaku (9th on Green500) uses British-design ARM-based CPUs with instruction set extensions developed by Japanese Fuijitu, the maker of the supercomputer, while notably GPUs are absent at 14.665 MFLOPS/W.[12]

Green 500 List

Top 10 positions of GREEN500 in November 2020[13]
Rank Performance
per Watt
Name Model
Processors, Interconnect
Vendor Site
Country, year
AMD EPYC 7742 64C 2.25GHz, NVIDIA A100, Mellanox HDR Infiniband
  United States, 2020
2 26.039 MN-3 MN-Core Server
Xeon Platinum 8260M 24C 2.4GHz, Preferred Networks MN-Core, MN-Core DirectConnect,
Preferred Networks Preferred Networks,
  Japan, 2020
3 25.008 JUWELS Booster Module Bull
Sequana XH2000 , AMD EPYC 7402 24C 2.8GHz, NVIDIA A100, Mellanox HDR InfiniBand/ParTec ParaStation ClusterSuite
Atos Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ),
4 24.262 Spartan2 Bull
Sequana XH2000 , AMD EPYC 7402 24C 2.8GHz, NVIDIA A100, Mellanox HDR Infiniband, Atos
5 23.983 Selene NVIDIA DGX A100
AMD EPYC 7742 64C 2.25GHz, NVIDIA A100, Mellanox HDR Infiniband, Nvidia
NVIDIA Corporation
  United States, 2020
6 16.876 A64FX prototype Fujitsu A64FX
Fujitsu A64FX 48C 2GHz, Tofu interconnect D
Fujitsu Numazu
  Japan, 2018
7 15.771 AiMOS IBM Power System AC922
IBM POWER9 20C 3.45GHz, Dual-rail Mellanox EDR Infiniband, NVIDIA Volta GV100
IBM Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy,
 United States,2018
8 15.740 HPC5 PowerEdge C4140
Xeon Gold 6252 24C 2.1GHz, NVIDIA Tesla V100, Mellanox HDR Infiniband,
Dell EMC Eni S.p.A.,
9 15.574 Satori IBM Power System AC922
IBM POWER9 20C 2.4GHz, Infiniband EDR, NVIDIA Tesla V100 SXM2
IBM MIT/MGHPCC, Holyoke, Massachusetts,
 United States,2018
10 12.723 Fugaku Supercomputer Fugaku
A64FX 48C 2.2GHz, Tofu interconnect D,
Fujitsu RIKEN Center for Computational Science,
  Japan, 2020

Historical development

energy efficiency of top-ranked computers (Gigaflops/Watt)


  1. ^ "The Green500". Archived from the original on 2016-06-20.
  2. ^ "Green 500 list ranks supercomputers". iTnews Australia. Archived from the original on 2008-10-22.
  3. ^ "University of Tennessee Supercomputer Sets World Record for Energy Efficiency". National Institute for Computational Sciences News. University of Tennessee & Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  4. ^ "Beacon - Appro GreenBlade - Green500 list". Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  5. ^ "Eurotech Eurora, the PRACE prototype deployed by Cineca and INFN, scores first in Green500 list". Cineca. Cineca. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  6. ^ "Eurora - Aurora Tigon - Top500 list". Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  7. ^ "The Green500 List - November 2014". Archived from the original on 2015-02-22.
  8. ^ Hindriksen, Vincent (2015-08-02). "The knowns and unknowns of the PEZY-SC accelerator at RIKEN". StreamHPC. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  9. ^ Tiffany, Tiffany (August 4, 2015). "Japan Takes Top Three Spots on Green500 List". HPCWire. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  10. ^ "PEZY & ExaScaler Step Up on the Green500 List with Immersive Cooling". InsideHPC. September 23, 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  11. ^ "June 2019 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  12. ^ "The most energy-efficient system on the Green500|June 2020 | TOP500". Retrieved 2020-12-23.
  13. ^ "November 2019". Retrieved 2020-11-19.

Edited: 2021-06-18 18:47:16