Ecma International

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Ecma International
Ecma International Logo.svg
Formation1961; 60 years ago (1961)
TypeStandards organization
PurposeStandardization of information and communication technology and consumer electronics
HeadquartersGeneva, Switzerland
Region served
Official language
Key people
  • Isabelle Valet-Harper (President)
  • Jochen Friedrich (Executive Committee Chair and Treasurer)
  • Patrick Luthi (Secretary General)
Main organ
General Assembly
by membership dues
Formerly called
European Computer Manufacturers Association

Ecma International (/ˈɛkmə/) is a nonprofit standards organization for information and communication systems.[1] It acquired its current name in 1994, when the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) changed its name to reflect the organization's global reach and activities. As a consequence, the name is no longer considered an acronym and no longer uses full capitalization.

The organization was founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Membership is open to large and small companies worldwide that produce, market, or develop computer or communication systems, and have interest and experience in the areas addressed by the group's technical bodies. It is located in Geneva.


Ecma aims to develop standards and technical reports to facilitate and standardize the use of information communication technology and consumer electronics; encourage the correct use of standards by influencing the environment in which they are applied; and publish these standards and reports in electronic and printed form. Ecma publications, including standards, can be freely copied by all interested parties without copyright restrictions. The development of standards and technical reports is done in co-operation with the appropriate national, European, and international organizations.

Unlike national standardization bodies, Ecma is a membership-based organization. It takes pride in the resulting "business-like" approach to standards, claimed to lead to better standards in less time, thanks to a less bureaucratic process focused on achieving results by consensus.[citation needed]

Ecma has actively contributed to worldwide standardization in information technology and telecommunications. More than 400 Ecma Standards[2] and 100 Technical Reports[3] have been published, more than 23 of which have also been adopted as international standards and/or technical reports.

The memberlist of Ecma International is available on its website.[4] Its members include IT companies, IT trade associations, universities, foundations and public institutions.


Ecma International is responsible for several standards, including:

Java programming language

Although Sun Microsystems submitted its Java programming language to Ecma, Sun subsequently withdrew the submission. Thus, Ecma is not responsible for the standardization of Java.[22]

Office Open XML formats

Ecma is involved in the standardization of the Office Open XML format based on the XML office document formats by Microsoft. The Ecma Office Open XML maintenance process is performed by technical committee 45 (TC45).[23]


The Ecma standards are governed through various technical committees such as:

  • TC39 – responsible for ECMAScript.[24]
  • TC45 – responsible for Office Open XML.[23]
  • TC53 – responsible for ECMAScript Modules for Embedded Systems.[25]

Eco Declaration

In Ecma International Standard 370,[26] Ecma joined with the Scandinavian IT Eco Declaration organisation to put forward a guideline for informing consumers about the environmental practices of the manufacturers of ICT and consumer electronics products.

The IT Eco Declaration includes information on the environmental practices of the manufacturer as well as product features, such as environmentally conscious design, batteries, acoustic noise, electrical safety, energy consumption, chemical emissions, substances and materials included, and packaging. This makes it easy to compare different suppliers and their products, as they all present the environmental features of their products in the same way, through a common industry standard reporting form.

See also


  1. ^ "Ecma By-laws".
  2. ^ "Ecma Standards - list".
  3. ^ "Ecma Technical Reports".
  4. ^ "Ecma Members".
  5. ^ "Standard ECMA-6, 7-bit Coded Character Set". December 1991. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
  6. ^ "Standard ECMA-35, Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques". December 1994. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
  7. ^ "Standard ECMA-48, Control Functions for Coded Character Sets". June 1991. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
  8. ^ "Volume and File Structure of CDROM for Information Interchange". Ecma International. December 1987. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
  9. ^ "Standard ECMA-262, ECMAScript Language Specification". Ecma International. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  10. ^ "Standard ECMA-334, C# Language Specification". Ecma International. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  11. ^ "Standard ECMA-335, Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)". Ecma International. Retrieved August 31, 2005.
  12. ^ "Standard ECMA-341, Environmental design considerations for electronic products". Ecma International. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  13. ^ "Standard ECMA-363, Universal 3D File Format". Ecma International. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  14. ^ "Standard ECMA-367, Eiffel analysis, design and programming Language". Ecma International. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  15. ^ "Standard ECMA-372". Ecma International. Archived from the original on 2008-08-10. Retrieved 2008-12-03.
  16. ^ "Standard ECMA-377". Ecma International.
  17. ^ "Standard ECMA-378". Ecma International.
  18. ^ "Standard ECMA-388". Ecma International.
  19. ^ "Standard ECMA-402". Ecma International.
  20. ^ "Standard ECMA-404". Ecma International. Archived from the original on 2013-10-14.
  21. ^ Dart Programming Language Specification
  22. ^ Lattig, Michael (December 8, 1999). "Sun to retain grip on Java". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2020-07-17.
  23. ^ a b "TC45 - Office Open XML Formats". Ecma International. Archived from the original on 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2006-07-27.
  24. ^ "Ecma news". Retrieved 2020-06-26.
  25. ^ "TC53". Ecma International. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  26. ^ "Standard ECMA-370".

Edited: 2021-06-18 11:03:05