Deliberate process that transforms inputs to outputs with variable change

For the card game, see Calculation (game).

A **calculation** is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people.

For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black–Scholes model is a more complex algorithmic calculation.

Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers.

To *calculate* means to determine mathematically in the case of a number or amount, or in the case of an abstract problem to deduce the answer using logic, reason or common sense.^{[1]} The English word derives from the Latin *calculus*, which originally meant a small stone in the gall-bladder (from Latin *calx*). It also meant a pebble used for calculating, or a small stone used as a counter in an abacus (Latin *abacus*, Greek *abax*). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.

## Comparison to computation

Calculation is a prerequisite for computation.^{[2]} The difference in the meaning of *calculation* and *computation* appears to originate from the late medieval period.^{[3]}

## See also

- Philosophy portal
- Psychology portal

- Calculus (disambiguation) — list of general methods of calculation by application area
- Complexity class — theoretical notion to categorize calculability
- Cost accounting — business application of calculation
- List of algorithms — fully formalized, computer-executable methods of calculation
- Mental calculation — performing arithmetics using one's brain only

## External links

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**By:** Wikipedia.org

**Edited:** 2021-06-18 17:49:46

**Source:** Wikipedia.org